> partfrac
Partial fraction decomposition of a rational in C
SYNTAX

partfrac // Displays this help
I = partfrac(r)
[I, R] = partfrac(r)
[I, R, F] = partfrac(r)
[I, R, F, T]= partfrac(r)
PARAMETERS

r : Single rational = polynomial fraction with real or complex coefficients.
I : Integer part = nonfractional part of f (single polynomial).
R : Remainder of r: rational with degree(numerator) < degree(denominator)
F : (3xN) matrix describing the N terms of the r's decomposition:
F(1,:): real or complex coefficient of numerators.
F(2,:): real or complex value of the considered poles.
F(3,:): integer>0: powers m of the denominators (xpole)^m
F is such that sum( F(1,:)./ ((xF(2,:)).^F(3,:)) )  r == 0.
T : 3rows column of Texts. write(%io(2),t) displays i+d in a comprehensive
way. The format of coefficients is set with format().
DESCRIPTION

From a single polynomial fraction r = p/q with coprime polynomials p and q,
partfrac(f) extracts
* the non fractional part I of f: polynomial such that
0 <= degree(I) <= degree(p)  degree(q): I = p  modulo(p,q)
* the fractional part of r, or remainder R of p/q : R = modulo(p,q)/q
such that degree(r.num))< degree(q) and r = I + R
* the rational decomposition of R, aka partial fraction decomposition of r:
The 'vector' of elementary rationals c/(xpole)^m where c and poles are
decimal or complex numbers and m are the multiplicities of poles:
c = F(1,:), pole = F(2,:), m = d(3,:)
In addition, partfrac() may return as text the literal expression T of the
whole decomposition of r. This form shows the factorized forms of denominators
where poles that are multiple appear with their powers. write(%io(2), T) may
be used to display it.
DEPENDENCY: If F or/and T is expected, polyroots() is required (=>See also)
NOTE: pfss(r) yields a list mixing the nonfractional part (as last element)
with the decomposition, and where terms of the decomposition are not always
elementary: their denominator may be of order 2 even for real poles. See the
example.
REFERENCE

Comments, scoring and bug reports are welcome on
http://fileexchange.scilab.org/toolboxes/451000#new_comment
SEE ALSO

pfss : Partial (uncomplete) fraction decomposition of a linear system
modulo : Remainder after polynomial division
polyroots : Multiplicities and values of polynomial multiple roots:
http://fileexchange.scilab.org/toolboxes/362000
pdiv_inc : Polynomial division with increasing terms powers:
http://fileexchange.scilab.org/toolboxes/449000
EXAMPLE

x = poly(0,"x");
r = (3x+x^24*x^3+2*x^4) / ((x1)*(x2)^2)
[I, R, F, T] = partfrac(r);
I, R, F, T
D = F(1,:)./((xF(2,:)).^F(3,:))
clean(Rsum(D))
// Comparison with pfss():
list2vec(pfss(r)).'
RESULTS

>x = poly(0,"x");
> r = (3x+x^24*x^3+2*x^4) / ((x1)*(x2)^2)
r =
2 3 4
3  x + x  4x + 2x

2 3
 4 + 8x  5x + x
> [I, R, F, T] = partfrac(r);
> I,R,F,T
I =
6 + 2x
R =
2
27  41x + 15x

2 3
 4 + 8x  5x + x
F =
14. 5. 1.
2. 2. 1.
1. 2. 1.
T =
! 14 5 1 !
!6 + 2x +  +  +  !
! 2+x (2+x)^2 1+x !
> D = F(1,:)./((xF(2,:)).^F(3,:))
D =
! 14 5 1 !
!    !
! 2 !
! 2 + 1x 4  4x + 1x 1 + 1x !
> clean(Rsum(D))
ans =
0

1
> // Comparison with pfss():
> list2vec(pfss(f)).'
ans =
 23 + 14x 1 6 + 2x
  
2
4  4x + x  1 + x 1